Balancing Between Khauf (Fear) and King ‘(Hoping)

TAUHID’s lesson on this is quite important, that in the life of the servant of this world it is necessary to combine between mahabbah (love), khauf (fear) and king ‘(hope).

The theme of the Mahabbah in worship is the word of God:

ومن الناس من يتخذ من دون الله أندادا يحبونهم كحب الله والذين آمنوا أشد حبا لله

“And among men there are those who worship rivals other than Allah; they love him as they love God. As for those who believe very very love of Allah “(Surat al-Baqarah: 165).

Dalau Khauf (fear) in Worship is the word of God:

أولئك الذين يدعون يبتغون إلى ربهم الوسيلة أيهم أقرب ويرجون رحمته ويخافون عذابه إن عذاب ربك كان محذورا

“Those whom they call, they themselves seek the way of their Lord, who among those who are closer (to God) and expect His mercy and fear His Penalty. Verily the punishment of thy Lord is one that [should] be feared. “(Surat al-Isra ‘: 57)

Theorem of the King ‘(hope) in Worship is the word of God,

فمن كان يرجو لقاء ربه فليعمل عملا صالحا ولا يشرك بعبادة ربه أحدا

“For that, whoever expects his encounter with his Rabb, let him do good deeds and do not associate with anything in worshiping his Lord” (Surat al-Kahf: 110).

In every act and worship of a servant there must be these three things. As a person in his world affairs, there are three of these things. For example a student who takes an exam, then there is:

Fear: not passing the exam and DO
Wish: pass the test with good grades
Love: Love with the majors he took and the science he learned because it is his choice
A servant must balance between khauf and king ‘as in the following verse which describes a servant praying with hope and anxiety. Allah says,

إنهم كانوا يسارعون في الخيرات ويدعوننا رغبا ورهبا وكانوا لنا خاشعين

“Surely they are the ones who are always hasty in the works of good works and they pray to Us with hope and anxiety. And they are the ones who are devoted to Us. “(Surat al-Anbiya ‘: 90)

If it is too big and dominates fear (khauf), it will fall prey to the awaited khawarij of God’s mercy when Allah is All-Merciful.

If it is too big and dominates the sense of the king ‘(hope), it will fall into the creed of murji’ah which removes the fear of Allah, only showing forgiveness and hope when Allah is also “syadidul iqab” ie hard punishment.

Therefore these two things exemplified like the wings of birds, there should be no more heavy or broken next door. Shaykh Abdul Aziz bin Baz said,

والعبد يسير إلى الله بين الرجاء والخوف كالجناحين للطائر, يخاف الله ويرجوه

“A servant should worship Allah between kings and khaufs like two bird wings.” [1]

There are several circumstances in which one of the khaufs and kings’ needs to dominate a bit. For example:

When the pain that will deliver his death, then expand the sense of king ‘(hope) to God will reward the worship that was once done. Moreover, the worship is a worship that is hidden, only God and he who knows and really only expect the face of God alone.

This is as the hadith of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alahi wa sallam who teaches us to die in a state berhusnuzhan to God. He said,

لا يموتن أحدكم إلا وهو يحسن الظن بالله عز وجل

“Do not one of you die unless he is prejudiced to Allah Azza Wa jalla.” [2]

Here is the explanation of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaimin regarding the details of the following,

اختلف العلماء هل يقدم الإنسان الرجاء أو يقدم الخوف على أقوال:

فقال الإمام أحمد رحمه الله: “ينبغي أن يكون خوفه ورجاؤه واحدا, فلا يغلب الخوف ولا يغلب الرجاء”, قال رحمه الله: “فأيهما غلب هلك صاحبه”, لأنه إن غلب الرجاء وقع الإنسان في الأمن من مكر الله, وإن غلب الخوف وقع في القنوط من رحمة الله. وقال بعض العلماء: “ينبغي تغليب الرجاء عند فعل الطاعة, وتغليب الخوف عند إرادة المعصية”, لأنه إذا فعل الطاعة فقد أتى بموجب حسن الظن, فينبغي أن يغلب الرجاء وهو القبول, وإذا هم بالمعصية أن يغلب الخوف لئلا يقع في المعصية. وقال آخرون: ينبغي للصحيح أن يغلب جانب الخوف, وللمريض أن يغلب جانب الرجاء, لأن الصحيح إذا غلب جانب الخوف تجنب المعصية, والمريض إذا غلب جانب الرجاء لقي الله وهو يحسن الظن به. والذي عندي في هذه المسألة أن هذا يختلف باختلاف الأحوال, وأنه إذا خاف إذا غلب جانب الخوف أن يقنط من رحمة الله وجب عليه أن يرد ويقابل ذلك بجانب الرجاء, وإذا خاف إذا غلب الرجاء أن يأمن مكر الله فليرد ويغلب جانب الخوف, والإنسان في الحقيقة طبيب نفسه إذا كان قلبه حيا, الميت الذي لا يعالج قلبه ولا ينظر أحوال قلبه فهذا لا يهمه الأمر.

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